Climate : Temperate
OldName : Gorgan،Estarabad
Area : 1777014
Population : 220367
Golestan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country, south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan.
Golestān was split off from the province of Mazandaran in 1997. It has a population of 1.6 million (2006) and an area of 20,380 km². The major townships of the province are: Gorgan, Gonbad Kavoos, Bandar Torkaman, Bandar Gaz, Aliabad-e katul, Kord Kooy, ...see more Fenderesk and Minoo Dasht. Present-day Gorgan was called Esterabad or Astarabad until 1937.
Gorgān, Hyrcania in Latin, the district of "the wolves" (still seen thereabouts), is mentioned already as Varkāna- in the Behistun inscription.
Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000 BCE. Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. This was an important city of Persia, located on the Silk Road.
Under the Achaemenid Iran, it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes. The Hyrcanians, however, under the leadership of Megapanus, are mentioned by Herodotus in his list of Xerxes’ army during the invasion of Greece.
The Turkmens reside in the north of the province, a plain called Turkmen Sahra, this former nomadic people live in this area from 15th century, main cities of whom is Gonbad-e Kavus and Bandar Torkaman. Recent decades has seen a huge migration to this province, especially from Zabol northest city of Sistan and Baluchestan. They are a sizable minority at cities such as Gorgan, Ali Abad, Kalaleh and many of eastern townships.
Other ethnic groups such as Azerbaijanis, Baluchs, Qezelbashs, Kurds, Kazakhs, Georgians, and Armenians also reside in this area, and have preserved their traditions and rituals.
The Buwayhid and Ziyarid dynasties of Persia were from this region. They were known for the revival of pre-Islamic Persian culture.
The world's tallest brick tower stands in this province. It is the famous Gonbad-e Qabus, built by a famous Amir of this region.
Golestān enjoys mild weather and a temperate climate most of the year. Geographically, it is divided into two sections: The plains, and the mountains of the Alborz range. In the eastern Alborz section, the direction of mountains faces northeast and gradually decreases in height.