Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known as Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk Tusi (Persian: خواجه نظامالملک طوسی - Khwāğa Nizāmu l'Mulk al-Ṭusī) was a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire. His fame is mainly due to the fact that he held near absolute power for 20 years during his reign after the assassination of Alp Arslan in 1072.
"Nizam al-Mulk" was an honorific which he assumed after achieving prominence. It means in Arabic: "good order of the kingdom.
Nizam al-Mulk was born on April 10, 1018 in a small village named Radkan, near Tus, in Iran, to a dehqan family. His father Ali ibn Ishak served as a financial officer to the Ghaznavids. However, when the Seljuq Turks conquered Khorasan in 1040, Nizam's father fled to Ghazni, where Nizam al-Mulk was probably working within the government.
Nizam al-Mulk was assassinated en route from Isfahan to Baghdad on 10 Ramadhan 485 A.H. (14 October 1092) The mainstream literature says he was stabbed by the dagger of a member of the Assassins (Hashshashin) sent by the notorious Hassan-i-Sabbah near Nahavand, Persia, as he was being carried on his litter. The killer approached him disguised as a dervish.
Nizam al-Mulk was a excellent and clever vizier, he represented the majesty, splendor and hospitality of the Barmakids, historians and poets describe him as a great organizer and an ideal soldier and scholar. Only thanks to him it was possible for the Seljuq Turks to establish a powerful empire in their new home. Nizam was not only the leader of the Persian-dominated bureaucratic (divan), but was also an Atabeg who served in the royal court (dadgar) and played an important role between the politically and culturally differences of the Iranians and Turks. He was also responsible for establishing distinctly Persian forms of government and administration which would last for centuries.
Even after his death his family continued to play an important in the Seljuq Empire, one these was his son, Ahmad Ibn Nizam al-Mulk, who was born to an Georgian princess from the Bagrationi dynasty.